Herein, we have developed a one-pot method for the fabrication of one-dimensional core/shell microrods with tunable shell compositions by the introduction of additives. Crystalline dimethyl melamine hydrochloride was utilized as the core, while melamine derivatives with different functional groups, such as pyrene, thiophene and naphthalene diimide, served as additives to regulate the core morphology and were adsorbed as the shell. The length and width of these one-dimensional structures can be tuned by varying the molar ratio of core and shell molecules as well as their total concentration. Through X-ray diffraction, the detailed molecular arrangements within the core of the microrods were revealed, and the selective effect of additives on specific crystal faces was evaluated. It is anticipated that this work may provide a facile approach for the fabrication of one-dimensional functional materials.